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A Critical Appraisal on Transmission, Epidemiology and Control of Toxoplasmosis: A Major Protozoan Zoonosis

Mahendra Pal1,*, Carl H.D. Steinmetz2, Nidhish Bhardwaj3,  Sonia de Avila Botton4

1Narayan Consultancy on Veterinary Public Health and Microbiology, Anand, Gujarat, India.

2Expats and Immigrants B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

3CII-Food and Agriculture Centre of Excellence, Andhra Association Building, New Del-hi, India.

4Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences (PPGCF) and Veterinary Medicine (PPGMV), Centre for Rural Sciences, De-partment of Preventive Veterinary Medicine. One Health Laboratory, Brazil.

*Corresponding author: Mahendra Pal

Published: 18 June 2024 How to cite this paper


Toxoplasmosis is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which is one of the most prevalent parasites in the world. Globally, one third of human population suffer from toxoplasmosis. The disease is usually transmitted by eating infected meat that has been improperly cooked or baked, exposure to the feces of sick cats, or from mother to child during pregnancy. Transmission can also occur by ingestion of unpasteurized milk and contaminated water with the protozoa. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts or tissue cysts inadvertently enter the human body through food or water Transmission from mother to fetus can also occur congenitally. Transmission can also occur through organ transplantation or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Individuals infected with Toxoplasma gondii often remain unaware of their infection. Yet, a minority of individuals may exhibit flu-like manifestations such as body aches, swollen lymph nodes, headaches, fever, fatigue, confusion, lack of coordination, and seizures. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in humans is made by biological, serologic, histologic, or molecular techniques, or a combination of these techniques. Treatment is recommended only for people with serious health problems. This includes people with HIV, as the disease is most severe when a person's immune system is compromised. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can be prevented by avoiding drinking contaminated water and wearing gloves when gardening, as soil or sand may contain cat feces containing Toxoplasma gondii.

KEYWORDS: Cat, Meat, Protozoa, Public health, Toxoplasma gondii, Water, Zoonosis


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How to cite this paper

Mahendra Pal, Carl H.D. Steinmetz, Nidhish Bhardwaj,  Sonia de Avila Botton. A Critical Appraisal on Transmission, Epidemiology and Control of Toxoplasmosis: A Major Protozoan Zoonosis. International Journal of Medicine Frontiers, 2024, 7(1), 16-23.

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